1. Crafting the Field of Common Heritage

1 The Danish National Museum made a list of relevant literature and posted it on their webpage on the Ghana Initiative. Understood explicitly as relevant for the project planners, this literature thus also became relevant for me to read and discuss with them.

2 Dantzig 1999: vii.

3 Perbi 2007: 23–4.

4 DeCorse 2001: 145ff.

5 Essah 2001.

6 Justesen 2005.

7 Hernæs 2010: xiff.

8 E.g. Kurt-Nielsen et al. 2008: 56; for an earlier but similar argument see Hansen [1967] 2005: 33. This public ignorance has over the last decade been severely challenged. The Danish participation in the slave trade has made it to several newspaper headlines, and has been substantiated and discussed at conferences, museum exhibits and in classrooms.

9 Petersen 1946: 5.

10 A similar argument can be found in Benedict Anderson’s canonical Imagined Communities (1996), where Anderson suggests that history-telling and writing about the nation can bring its national citizens together (1996: 11ff, 197ff). Richard Handler has argued along the same lines in relation to Quebec’s cultural heritage (1985).

11 The volume about the Gold Coast was written by historian Georg Nørregård.

12 Brimnes and Gulløv. 2017.

13 Hansen 2005: 197.

14 Jørgensen and Mikkelsen 2006.

15 Nørregård 1968.

16 Justesen 2005.

17 Bredwa-Mensah 2002.

18 Carstensen 1964 [1842-1850].

19 Awadzi et al. 2005.

20 Forskerforum 2002: 7.

21 Regeringsgrundlag 2001 [Government’s platform 2001].

22 Regeringen 2003 [the Government 2003]; Kulturministeriet 2004 [Ministry of Culture 2004].

23 Højgaard 2001.

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Grubbe 2002.

27 Trankebar is the Danish name for the Indian town of Tharangambadi in which the former Danish fort mentioned above is located. The town was first and foremost a trading station for ships engaged in the Danish-East Indian trade. Cf. the official webpages of the Ghana-Initiative and the Trankebar-Initiative.

28 Kurt-Nielsen et al. 2008: 58.

29 After my involvement in the project, I arranged a collection of some of the construction materials related to the reconstruction, thinking that such items might be interesting for a potential exhibition on the workings of the Ghana Initiative at the National Museum of Denmark. Later, I made a collection in the village where the reconstruction work was done. This collection work was inspired by and in close dialogue with a collection of ‘everyday objects’, as the items were called in the correspondence between the Governor and the Director of the Museum, from the area in the 1820s-1840s kept at the National Museum of Denmark.

30 GMMB official webpage.

31 This was backed by a new and growing literature on the subject: e.g. Essah 2001: 47–8; Bruner 2005: 104; Nketia in Perbi 2007: ix; Appiah 2007.

32 UNESCO Slave Route Project, official webpage.

33 This increasing interest has also been discussed by Essah 2001: 47–8; Bruner 2005: 102; Schramm 2010b.

34 Hence the 1972 UNESCO Convention: Articles 1 and 2.

35 An abbreviation for the ‘International Council on Monuments and Sites’, and a non-governmental international organisation dedicated to the conservation and protection of the worlds’ monuments and sites. Like UNESCO the organisation has its headquarters in Paris.

36 ICOMOS, official webpage; ICOMOS 1979.

37 Bruner 2005: 102; Kreamer 2007: 438ff; Schramm 2010b: 76ff.

38 Kreamer 2007: 459.

39 Macdonald 2009: 60ff. Like the contentious Nazi buildings in Nuremberg in Germany, the forts and castles along the Ghanaian coast could at least serve some purpose. In Nuremberg, on the other hand, demolition of the Nazi buildings had been discussed.

40 See e.g. BBC News 2008.

41 Ministry of Tourism, official webpage. With the new government in 2008, ‘Diasporan Relations’ was again deleted from the ministry’s name.

42 Modern Ghana, official webpage, ‘Comment’ (no named author).

43 For a similar argument see Schramm 2010b: 59ff. See also Nkrumah’s own wording: 1961: 44, 125ff, 168, 189; and Appiah 1992: 6ff.

44 Bredwa-Mensah 2003a: 13.

45 Bredwa-Mensah 2003b.

46 See Greenough and Tsing 2003.

47 See Ebron 2000.

48 See for example Tunbridge and Ashworth 1996; Dann and Seaton 2001; Williams 2007; Macdonald 2009.

49 See for example Tunbridge and Ashworth 1996: 7ff; Clifford 1997: 215ff; Macdonald 2009: 10; Harrison 2010: 21; and particularly for Ghana see: Essah 2001: 45; Bruner 2005: 102ff; Schramm 2010a: 72; Ministry of Tourism and Diasporan Relations (of Ghana) official webpage.

50 Dann and Seaton 2001: 25.

51 1996: 129.

52 Tunbridge and Ashworth 1996.

53 Meskell 2002.

54 Lowenthal 2003.

55 Macdonald 2009.

56 Meskell 2002: 558.

57 Logan and Reeves 2009: 3.

58 Meskell 2002: 558.

59 Logan and Reeves 2009: 1.

60 See also Handler and Gable 1997: 79ff.

61 Essah 2001: 47–8; Bruner 2005: 104; Nketia in Perbi 2007: ix; Appiah 2007.

62 Adebayo 2007: 93; Perbi 2007: xv; Schramm 2010b: 32.

63 Bredwa-Mensah quoted in Hellmann 2005a.

64 Hyllestad 2007: 5.

65 Guinea Journals 1849: 701, ad 1837: 447.

66 Macdonald 2009: 3.