2. Sharing Heritage Through Friction

1 Jensen and Jørgensen 2006: 34.

2 Apart from the Frederiksgave plantation, no further restoration projects have been carried out by the National Museum of Denmark in Ghana. In India, on the other hand, the National Museum of Denmark has renovated Danish-Indian heritage in both Tharangambadi and most recently in Serampore, India (see also the Serampore Initiative, official webpage).

3 The song was written in rhyming Danish but is here translated to English.

4 ‘Dannebrog’ is the name of the Danish flag.

5 Hellmann 2005b.

6 Jensen and Jørgensen 2006: 34.

7 See e.g. Wagner 1981; Handler 1985, 1986a+b; Clifford 1988, 1997; Tsing 1993; Fox and King 2002; Trouillot 2002. Recent discussions about ontology, holism and cosmology have pushed the notion of culture – see e.g. Carrithers et al. 2010; Otto and Bubandt 2010; Abramson and Holbraad 2014.

8 Hence the Danish Museum Act 2006: §5.

9 I borrow the idea of the white coat from Michael Taussig’s point about science’s need to speak with authority – an authority that is essential since science inevitably lives by transgressing taboos and thereby entails a kind of violence that can be kept at bay and under control by the authority of the white coats (1993: 31–2).

10 Edited by Clifford and Marcus 1986.

11 For a similar point see Verran 2001: 24ff.

12 Knippel 2003.

13 Ibid.

14 The Danish term used was ‘dannelse’. This word resonates with the German word ‘bildung’ and refers to a general and formative process of self-cultivation based on certain social and/or pedagogical norms. ‘Dannelse’, therefore, connotes something more than the English ‘education’ (in Danish ‘Uddannelse’).

15 Larsen in Kronsted 2002.

16 J. Nielsen 2004.

17 Nietzsche 1994 [1874]: Preface.

18 Larsen in Hellmann 2005b.

19 Jørgensen in Jensen 2010: 80.

20 Ibid: 84.

21 Tsing 2005: 89.

22 Ibid: 91–2.

23 Ibid: 94.

24 Ibid: 89.

25 Ibid.

26 Logan and Reeves 2009: 13.

27 Ibid.

28 Ibid.

29 Hellmann 2005b.

30 As stated in the Danish Museum Act §2 and §23.

31 Venice Charter 1964: opening passage in the Preamble (original emphasis).

32 Athens Charter 1931: §VII.

33 Crinson 2001: 236.

34 Shaw in Crinson 2001: 237.

35 Huxley in Crinson 2001: 237.

36 Verran 2001: 26.

37 Jørgensen and Mikkelsen 2006: 33.

38 Ghana Initiative, official homepage.

39 Kurt-Nielsen et al. 2008: 57.

40 Amoah et al. 2004: 97.

41 Ibid.

42 For a similar point see e.g. Anderson 1996: 170ff; Ingold 2000a: 242.

43 E.g. ”Airstrip. Mosque. Crocodile Pond. Cocoa Area. Goldmining. Goldsmithing. Museum, Cave. Northern Architecture. Beach Resort. Castle/Fort” (Amoah et al. 2004: 97).

44 Jørgensen and Mikkelsen 2006: 31.

45 Kurt-Nielsen et al. 2008: 56.

46 Ibid: 67.

47 Pratt 1992: 15.

48 Ibid: 38.

49 Ibid: 39.

50 Dibley 2011.

51 Kurt-Nielsen et al. 2008: 58.

52 Literally meaning “in memory of Frederich” – the name of the Danish king at that time.

53 Brichet 2009: 11ff.

54 DeCorse 2001.

55 Letter of November 14, 2008, from the Wulff family’s attorney to the National Museum of Denmark.

56 Here I am inspired by de Laet and Mol’s (2000) analysis of how a particular bush-pump in Zimbabwe could be seen as a fluid object, working in multiple ways.

57 Star and Griesemer 1989.

58 See Logan and Reeves 2009.

59 Pratt 1992: 204.

60 Ibid: 202.

61 Winds of change made the museum down-size this pilot project to that of a book with the title “Danskernes huse på Guldkysten 1659-1850”, edited by Jørgensen 2015. In English the title would be: The Danes’ Houses on the Gold Coast 1659-1850.

62 Tsing 2005: 93.

63 Kurt-Nielsen et al. 2008: 61–62.

64 Christensen 1994: 24ff et al.

65 Kurt-Nielsen et al. 2008: 66.