1 As Marilyn Strathern predicted (1992).

2 As if scientists were not also humans, and science not also a social endeavour; see Jensen and Blok 2019.

3 The geological sciences, they argue, might in fact provide a different sort of image to collapse: ‘the very configuration of the earth into a single, integrated system in the newly dynamic earth sciences has been the condition of a more dis-integrated, fractious and multiple vision of the planet (N. Clark, 2016). p10’ (Clark and Yusoff 2017).

4 Though Ghosh does cite Morton.

5 Harman was one of the main proponents of OOO, which became very popular in the early 2000s, and spawned a large online discussion and following.

6 See also Waterton and Yusoff’s notion of ‘indeterminacy’, which captures a space that ‘exceeds classification’ (2017: 9).

7 Strongly inspired by the symbiogenetic theory proposed by the American biologist Lynn Margulis (1991), Haraway builds upon the term symbiogenesis and its capability to capture the notion that evolutionary biological novelty arises not just from Darwinian descent with modification, but also through the symbiotic fusion of diverse types of cells and organisms (see Helmreich 2014).

8 Here we do not intend to discuss Gaia scholarship in detail. For further recent discussions about it see Jensen and Blok 2019, Latour et al. 2019, among many others.

9 See also Viveiros de Castro 2019 for an interpretation of Amerindian thought in this vein.

10 It should be noted that this shift presupposes a reciprocal, generative self-contradiction between the two, rather than a renewed opposition between nature-culture divides. As Wagner writes, ‘Nature… is a cultural concept, but culture itself is a natural fact. All this means, however, is that culture is a self-differentiating variable; in chiasmatic terms the contradiction is revealed; culture is the difference between itself and nature; nature is the similarity between the two (2018: 508).

11 As we revise this introduction (January 2021), our planet has dramatically changed due to the emergence of Covid-19. This introduction, as well as the chapters and the conversations, were written before this pandemic moment. In this context, we have witnessed the rise of anti-scientific thinking, which has subsequently triggered diverse pro-science mobilisations. As scholars inspired by anthropology and science and technology studies, we feel the urgency of not going back to holist understandings of Science, with a capital S, but to reveal, once again, the relevance of the situatedness of scientific practices. Even if an exploration of this new planetary scene goes far beyond the aims and the scopes of this book, we hope that the ‘chiasmatic’ spirit of our intervention, instantiated in the concept of ‘environmental alterities’, can potentially contribute to keeping in circulation the fact that science is a set of situated practices, continuously and chiasmatically evolving.


Arènes, A., B. Latour, and J. Gaillardet, ‘Giving Depth to the Surface: An Exercise in the Gaia-graphy of Critical Zones’, Anthropocene Review, 5 (2018): 120–135.

Bateson, G., Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1972).

Bennett, J., Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010).

Bonelli, C., ‘On people, Sensorial Perception, and Potential Affinity in Southern Chile’, Social Analysis, 63.2 (2019): 66–80.

Clark, N., Inhuman Nature: Sociable life on a Dynamic Planet (London: Sage, 2011).

——, ‘Geo-politics and the Disaster of the Anthropocene’, The Sociological Review, 62 (2014), (S1), 19–37.

Clark, N., and K. Yusoff, ‘Geosocial Formations and the Anthropocene’, Theory, Culture and Society, 34. 2–3 (2017): 3–23.

Colebrook, C., T. Cohen, and J. Miller, Twilight of the Anthropocene Idols (Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press, 2016).

Coole, D., and S. Frost, eds., New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010).

Cruikshank, J., ‘Are Glaciers ‘Good to Think With’? Recognising Indigenous Environmental Knowledge’, Anthropological Forum, 22.3 (2012): 239–250.

Steffen, W., P. Crutzen, and J. McNiell, ‘The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature’, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 36.8 (2007): 614–621.

Davis, H., and E. Turpin, ‘Matters of Cosmopolitics: On the Provocations of Gaïa. Isabelle Stengers in Conversation with Heather Davis and Etienne Turpin’, in E. Turpin, ed., Architecture in the Anthropocene: Encounters Among Deep Time, Design, Science & Philosophy (Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press, 2013), pp. 171–182.

de la Cadena, M., ‘Indigenous Cosmopolitics in the Andes: Conceptual Reflections Beyond Politics as Usual’, Cultural Anthropology, 25.2 (2010): 334–370.

——, ‘Uncommoning Nature: Stories from the Anthropo-not-seen’, in Penelope Harvey et. al., eds., Anthropos and the Material (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019), pp. 35–59.

Deleuze, G., and F. Guattari, Anti-Oedipus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983).

——, A Thousand Plateaus, trans. By B. Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987).

Deleuze, G., and F. Guattari, Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature (London: University of Minnesota Press, 2003).

Fortun, K., ‘Ethnography in Late Industrialism’, Cultural Anthropology, 27.3 (2010): 446–464.

Franklin, S., ‘Staying with the Manifesto: An Interview with Donna Haraway’, Theory, Culture & Society, 34.4 (2017): 49–63.

Green, S., and others, ‘A celebration of Roy Wagner and “The reciprocity of perspectives”’, Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale, 26.4 (2018): 511–518.

Ghosh, A., The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable (University of Chicago Press, 2016).

Haraway, D., The Companion Species Manifesto: Dogs, People, and Significant Otherness. (Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2003).

——, Staying with the Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016).

Haraway, D., and others, ‘Anthropologists Are Talking – About the Anthropocene’, Ethnos, 81.3 (2016): 535–564.

Harvey, P., C. Krohn-Hansen, and K. G. Nustad, Anthropos and the Material (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019).

Hayward, E., ‘FINGERYEYES: Impressions of Cup Corals’, Cultural Anthropology, 25.4 (2010): 577–599.

Helmreich, S., ‘Homo microbis: The Human Microbiome, Figural, Literal, Political’, Thresholds, 42 (2014): 52–59.

Hetch, G., ‘Interscalar Vehicles for an African Anthropocene: On Waste, Temporality, and Violence’, Cultural Anthropology, 33.1 (2018): 109–141.

Hetherington, K., ed., Infrastructure, Environment and Life in the Anthropocene (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019).

Holbraad, M., and M. A. Pedersen, The Ontological Turn: An Anthropological Exposition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017).

Hulme, M., Can Science Fix Climate Change? A Case Against Climate Engineering (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014).

Jensen, C., and A. Blok, ‘The Anthropocene Event in Social Theory: On Ways of Problematizing Nonhuman Materiality Differently’, The Sociological Review, 67.6 (2019): 1195–1211.

Kirksey, E., and S. Helmreich, ‘The Emergence of Multispecies Ethnography’, Cultural Anthropology, 25.4 (2010): 545–576.

Latour, B., We Have Never Been Modern (Simon and Schuster (England), Harvard University Press (United States), 1991).

——, Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004).

——, Facing Gaia. Eight Lectures on the New Climatic Regime (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2017).

——, Down to Earth: Politics in the New Climatic Regime (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2018).

Law, J., ‘What’s Wrong with a One-World World?’, Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory, 16.1 (2015): 126–139.

Law, J., M. Lien, and H. Swanson, ‘Modes of Naturing: Or Stories of Salmon’, in T. Marsden, ed., Sage Handbook of Nature (SAGE Publications, 2018), pp. 868–890.

Liboiron, M., ‘How Plastic Is a Function of Colonialism’, Teen Vogue (21 December 2018), <> [accessed 1 January 2020].

Malm, A., and A. Hornborg, ‘The Geology of Mankind: A Critique of the Anthropocene Narrative’, The Anthropocene Review, 1.1 (2014): 62–69.

Margulis, L., ed., Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation: Speciation and Morphogenesis (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991).

Mol, A., The Body Multiple: Ontology in Medical Practice (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002).

Moore, J. W., Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital (London: Verso, 2015).

Morton, T., Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2013).

——, Being Ecological (London: Penguin, 2018).

Nadim. T., ‘Blind Regards: Troubling Data and Their Sentinels’, Big Data & Society, 3.2 (2016): 1–6.

Omura, K., and others, eds., The World Multiple: Everyday Politics of Knowing and Generating Entangled Worlds (New York: Routledge Advances in Sociology, 2019).

Povinelli, E., ‘The Will to Be Otherwise/the Effort of Endurance’, South Atlantic Quarterly 111.3 (2012): 453–475.

Spivak, G., Death of a Discipline (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003).

——, ‘Planetarity’, in B. Cassin, ed., Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015).

Stengers, I., ‘Accepting the Reality of Gaia: A Fundamental Shift?’, in C. Hamilton, C. Bonneuil, and F. Gemenne, (eds.), The Anthropocene and the Global Environmental Crisis: Rethinking Modernity in a New Epoch (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2015a), pp. 134–144.

Stengers, I. In Catastrophic Times: Resisting the Coming Barbarism (Ann Arbor, MI: Open Humanities Press, 2015b).

——, ‘Autonomy and the Intrusion of Gaia’, South Atlantic Quarterly, 116 (2017): 381–400.

——, Another Science Is Possible. A Manifesto for Slow Science (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2018).

Strathern, M., After Nature: English Kinship in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Swanson, H. A., N. Bubandt, and A. Tsing, ‘Less Than One But More Than Many: Anthropocene as Science Fiction and Scholarship-in-the-Making’, Environment and Society, 6:1 (2015): 149–166.

Swyngedouw, E., and H. Ernston, ‘Interrupting the Anthropo-obScene: Immuno-biopolitics and Depoliticizing Ontologies in the Anthropocene’, Theory, Culture & Society, 35.6 (2018): 3–30.

Tsing, A. L., ‘More-Than-Human Sociality: A Call for Critical Description’, in K. Hastrup, ed., Anthropology and Nature (London: Routledge, 2013), pp. 27–43.

——, The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015).

Tsing, A. L., H. A. Swanson, E. Gan, and N. Bubandt, Arts of Living on a Damaged Planet: Ghosts and Monsters of the Anthropocene (Minneapolis, MI: Minnesota University Press, 2017).

Viveiros de Castro, E., ‘Cosmological Deixis and Amerindian Perspectivism’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 4 (1998): 469–488.

——, ‘GUT Feeling about Amazonia: Potential Affinity and the Construction of Sociality’, in L. Rival and N. Whitehead, eds., Beyond the Visible and the Material (Oxford University Press, 2001).

——, ‘On Models and Examples: Engineers and Bricoleurs in the Anthropocene’, Current Anthropology, 60 (2019): S296–S308.

Wagner, R., ‘The Reciprocity of Perspectives’, Social Anthropology, 26.4 (2018): 502–510.

——, Symbols That Stand for Themselves (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1986).

Wark, M., Molecular Red: A Theory for the Anthropocene (New York: Verso, 2015).

Waterton, C., and K. Yusoff, ‘Indeterminate Bodies: Introduction’, Body & Society, 23.3 (2017): 3-32.

Yusoff, K., ‘Insensible Worlds: Post-Relational Ethics, Indeterminacy and the (K)nots of Relating’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 31.2 (2013): 208–226.