List of abbreviations and acronyms

A separate glossary of technical definitions is also included at the end of the book.

CAPS: Collective Awareness Platforms

CEO: Chief Executive Officer

CIA: Central Intelligence Agency (United States of America)

CNNum: Conseil national du numérique (French Digital Council)

CTO: Chief Technology Officer

DNS: Domain Name System

DRM: Digital Rights Management

e2e: End-to-end

ECMA: European Computer Manufacturers Association

EDRi: European Digital Rights (organisation)

EFF: Electronic Frontier Foundation

ENISA: European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (maintained original acronym)

ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute

EU: European Union

FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation (United States of America)

FOSS or F/OSS: Free and Open-Source Software

FSB: Federal Security Service (Russian Federation)

GIF: Graphics Interchange Format

GitHub and GitLab: Platforms for collaboration between developers

GAIM (now Pidgin): F/OSS Instant Messaging client

GCM: Google Cloud Messaging

GDPR: General Data Protection Regulation

GNU/Linux: Free software operating system

GPG (GnuPG) GNU: Privacy Guard (free-software replacement for PGP)

GPL: General Public License

HADOPI: Haute Autorité pour la Diffusion des Œuvres et la Protection des droits d’auteur sur Internet

HTML: HyperText Markup Language

I2P: Invisible Internet Project

IANA: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

ICANN: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

ICTs: information and Communication Technologies

ID: Identifier

IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force

IG: Internet Governance

IM: Instant Messaging

IMAP: Internet Message Access Protocol

iOS: Mobile operating system developed by Apple, Inc.

IP: Internet Protocol

IRC: Internet Relay Chat

IRL: In Real Life

IRTF: Internet Research Task Force

ISO: International Standardization Organization

ISP: Internet Service Provider

ITU: International Telecommunications Union

LEAP: Encryption access project

MENA: Middle East and North Africa (region)

MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MTS: Telephone company, Russian Federation

MUAs: Mail User Agents

NEXTLEAP: NEXT-generation Techno-Social and Legal Encryption, Access and Privacy (H2020 project)

NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States of America)

NGO: Non-Governmental Organisation

NSA: National Security Agency (United States of America)

OMEMO: Multi-End Message and Object Encryption (recursive acronym)

OpenPGP: Open implementation of PGP

Opsec: Operational Security

OTR: Off-the-Record Messaging (see Glossary)

OWS: Open Whisper Systems

PGP: Pretty Good Privacy (see Glossary)

p2p: Peer-to-peer (system; see Glossary)

PRISM: Code name for NSA surveillance program begun in 2007

QR-code: Quick Response code

RfC: Request for Comments (IETF)

RightsCon: Summit on Human Rights in the digital age

RSA: Public-key encryption technology developed by RSA Data Security, Inc.

SD: Secure Digital

S/MIME: Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (cryptography norm)

SMS: Secure Messaging Scorecard

SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNI: Server Name Indication

STS: Science and Technology Studies

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TLS: Transport Layer Security

Tor or TOR: The Onion Router

UC: University of California

UDHR: Universal Declaration of Human Rights

UI/UX: User Experience and User Interface

UN: United Nations

UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

USA: United States of America

USB: Universal Serial Bus (industry standard)

VPN: Virtual Private Network

W3C: World Wide Web Consortium

XMPP: Extensible Message and Presence Protocol

XML: Extensible Markup Language