Notes

1 As it will become clearer in what follows, in the context of this chapter we distinguish between ‘points’ and ‘nodes’. We conceive of the first as folded devices tasked with an inputting task; the latter as unfolded actors which translate different sources into each other.

2 Here, ‘our’ includes also Ermioni Frezouli, in her capacity as temporary collaborator of the Processing Citizenship Project. Ms. Frezouli however decided not to participate in this chapter as co-author.

3 As a matter of fact, Hotspots ought not to be deployed exclusively in frontline countries. While they eventually were only implemented in Greece and Italy, originally the European Agenda foresaw their potential deployment in any Member State that required them (European Commission 2015b).

4 The shift from geographical to topological remoteness has mostly gone unnoticed by literature on ‘fortress Europe’ and borders. However, it is crucial to study the relationship between data infrastructures and institutional orders.

5 In Greek, Χαρτογράφηση Κυκλοφορίας Αλλοδαπών.

6 The Eurodac (i.e., European Dactyloscopy) system was first introduced in 2003 to support the application of the Schengen Treaty and Dublin Convention. It stores the digital fingerprints of every person claiming asylum in one of the European Member States. By doing so, it intends to univocally identify asylum seekers, so they cannot apply in more than one Member State. Eurodac was developed by European authorities and is now run by the European Union Agency for the Operational Management of Large-Scale IT Systems in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (eu-LISA).

7 It should be noted, however, that in some cases non-frontline Member States receive such data through international organizations. That non-governmental and non-European organizations act as intermediaries of European relations is indeed an important topic of analysis, and is addressed in forthcoming work by Pelizza, Loschi and Lausberg.

8 In the STS field, we are well aware of the topological meaning of equivalence as translation, that is, making to things that are different occupy the same position (see e.g. Latour 2005).

9 Following our observation on field and analysis of the procurement call, similar considerations could be made for hardware.

10 The ANSI/NIST standard can be considered the dominant standard worldwide for exchange of biometric and forensic information. The American National Standards Institute/National Institute of Standards and Technology – Information Technology Laboratory (ANSI/NIST-ITL) defines the content, format and units of measurement for the exchange of biometric and forensic information utilized to identify and authenticate individuals. The first version of the standard for the interchange of fingerprint, facial and biometric information was published in 1986 by the then called ‘United States National Bureau of Standards’. Its goal was to support electronic fingerprint submissions from US state and local authorities to the FBI (Wing 2013). The standard is now used by law enforcement, homeland security, military and other authorities in 71 countries in all continents.

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