1 Modern operating systems offer graphical user interfaces (GUI) to control and administer them to run applications with clicks, drag and drop. Below the surface, there is still a level of immediate control, the command line (see Stephenson 1999). In its iconic form it sometimes appears in popular culture as a black window with green typography, in the lived reality of computer culture it is accessed by starting a so-called ‘shell’ to communicate with the computer. An encrypted secure version of this is the secure shell or SSH.

2 Fortran is a programming language, in fact, the first programming language ever implemented. Before that, computers were programmed in machine code (such as START ST:MOV R1,#…MOVE R2,#1.END), after that in a more accessible form. Fortran (or FORmula TRANslation) was designed in 1957 and it is still in use in e.g. scientific and numeric calculations, although the number of people who can code in Fortran is decreasing constantly.


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